Climate change is real, and human activities, largely the release of polluting gases from burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas), are the main cause.

-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report set up by the UN.


The perils of the energy crisis and climate emergency are looming and catastrophic. The shift that we witness every year at the onset of seasons is just the tip of the iceberg. The United Nations Environment Programme categorically recognises greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a catalyst of the global climate crisis and emergency. The report states that GHG emissions are wreaking havoc on the lives of people and economies. According to the United Nations Report on Climate Action, fossil fuels – coal, oil and gas – are one of the largest contributors to global climate change and account for over 75 per cent of GHG emissions. The Paris Agreement recognises that these imminent factors will make energy transition and the transition to cleaner forms of energy- the need of the hour. The Agreement aims to reach net zero emissions by the year 2050.

In this article we recognise the significance and need of energy transition, which literally implies a transition from fossil-fuelled power to renewable energy and the intrinsic role that Intellectual Property plays in facilitating the technological innovations required for transition to cleaner forms of energy. We analyse herein how Intellectual Property acts as a catalyst for technological innovations and creativity in the regime of renewable energy.

In the above graph, UNICEF in its Report captures the alarming statistics of death threats from air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. It evaluates the health and environmental effects of different electrical sources. The information provided does not explicitly state which energy source is the cleanest. However, it does indicate that solar, wind, and nuclear power exhibit considerably lower mortality rates resulting from accidents and air pollution compared to fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas.

  • Highest in terms of cleanliness based on death rate:The graph illustrates that solar, wind, and nuclear power result in far fewer fatalities per terawatt-hour of energy generated compared to coal, oil, and gas. Solar energy is the most environmentally friendly option, resulting in only 0.02 fatalities per terawatt-hour, whereas coal energy leads to 24.6 fatalities per terawatt-hour – a staggering 1230 times higher. The significant disparity arises due to the emission of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from coal power plants, which are known to lead to respiratory disorders and heart attacks. Coal mining poses significant hazards.

  • Ranked highest in terms of greenhouse gas emissions cleanliness: The graph further demonstrates that solar, wind, and nuclear power generate significantly lower levels of greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide equivalent emissions from solar energy production amount to 15 tonnes per gigawatt-hour, but coal energy production results in 820 tonnes — a staggering 54 times greater. Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, have the ability to retain heat within the Earth’s atmosphere, leading to the phenomenon known as global warming. This phenomenon is associated with increasingly severe weather occurrences, elevating sea levels, and alterations in plant and animal biodiversity.

  • Transitioning from one energy source to another: Currently, the globe is in the process of transitioning from fossil fuels to more environmentally friendly energy sources. The driving force behind this is rooted in worries surrounding climate change, air pollution, and the adverse health effects associated with the use of fossil fuels. Several elements are facilitating the transformation. In recent years, there has been a significant decline in the costs associated with renewable energy technologies such as solar and wind. Furthermore, governments are offering financial assistance and inducements to promote the use of renewable energy sources. India’s objective is to obtain 50% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2030, as stated by the International Energy Agency.

The shift towards renewable energy sources presents a multifaceted and intricate obstacle. Renewable sources such as sun and wind are characterised by intermittency, meaning that they do not consistently generate energy. Consequently, it is necessary for them to be supported by alternative sources of energy, such as natural gas or hydropower. Nuclear power is a form of energy that emits a relatively small amount of carbon, but it has inherent safety hazards and poses challenges in terms of managing and disposing of radioactive waste. Nevertheless, the advantages of clean energy are evident. It has the potential to mitigate climate change, alleviate air pollution, and decrease the mortality rate associated with energy generation.

India and Energy Transition

The dictionary meaning of transition means “the process of changing from one state to another” likewise Energy transition too means the “shift in the major input in the production of energy, namely fuel, from fossilized ones to other sustainable and renewable sources”.

According to the India Energy Outlook 2021 report, India is ranked as the third largest carbon dioxide emitter in the world, and over 80% of India’s energy needs are met by the usage of three fuels, i.e., coal, oil and solid biomass, wherein coal is the major contributor in energy generation sector as well as growing Green House Gas (GHG) emission. With Green House Gas (GHG) hitting the roof and the earth getting warmer with each passing day, leading to extreme weather conditions, the inevitability of doom is staring at our faces; unless energy transition plans are put in place, the transition from convention carbon-spewing fossil fuel burning to harnessing on non-conventional energy sources like solar, wind, hydropower and biomass leading to decarbonisation of the economy is the need of the hour.

To balance the need of energy supply requirement of the entire nation and ensure minimum CO2 emission, the Government has taken a two-pronged approach wherein the government promotes the shift from coal-based power plants to the use of renewable energy, mainly through wind and solar energy as well as making efforts to use energy efficiently by formulating policy under the Energy Conservation Act, 2001.

Both investment and innovation are equally crucial, requiring substantial financing for the research, development, and implementation of clean energy technologies to reduce costs and solve technical obstacles. Prioritising social equity and inclusion is crucial, as it guarantees that every community has equal access to clean, affordable, and dependable energy services. This approach also tackles energy poverty and encourages participation and fair distribution of benefits in renewable energy initiatives. The energy transition is a significant overhaul of the worldwide energy system that aims to achieve sustainability, resilience, and inclusion. It presents potential for economic growth, employment creation, and environmental protection. By collectively embracing this shift, we can ensure the creation of a more wealthy and sustainable future for future generations.

The Hon’ble Supreme Court of India, in the case of MK Ranjitsinh et al. v. Union of India et al., highlighted the importance of solar power as a source of renewable energy wherein observed that “promotion of renewable energy sources is crucial for promoting social equity by ensuring access to clean and affordable energy for all segments of society and thus fostering inclusive growth and development across the nation. Therefore, transitioning to renewable energy is not just an environmental imperative but also a strategic investment in India’s future prosperity, resilience, and sustainability”.

India’s Tryst with Renewable Energy

The Indian government has enacted a range of measures to promote renewable energy, which encompasses Renewable Purchase Obligations, Tariffs, Formulation of National Green Hydrogen Mission subsidies for rooftop solar systems and large-scale solar projects etc.,

1. Renewable Purchase Obligation 

The new, which was notified by the Ministry of Power under the Electricity Act of 2003, mandates that all electricity distribution licensees should purchase or produce a minimum specified quantity for their requirements from Renewable Energy Sources. These percentages are determined by the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) and State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) for different categories of renewable energy, including solar, wind, hydro, and biomass. RPOs have played a significant role in India’s burgeoning renewable energy sector. Here are some key impacts:

  • Increased Renewable Energy Capacity: India’s installed renewable energy capacity has grown exponentially, surpassing 150 GW by March 2023. This rapid growth can be attributed in part to the assured demand created by RPOs.

  • Reduced Carbon Footprint: Increased renewable energy generation contributes to a cleaner power grid, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change impacts.

  • Energy Security: RPOs diversify the energy mix, reducing dependence on imported fossil fuels and enhancing energy security.

  • Technological Advancements: The policy has incentivised research and development in renewable energy technologies, leading to cost reductions and improved efficiency.

Financial Instruments for RPO Compliance:

  • Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs): While RECs provide flexibility for obligated entities, their over-dependence can create issues. There have been concerns about surplus RECs in the market, potentially leading to a disconnect between actual renewable energy generation and RPO fulfilment. Additionally, speculation in the REC market can inflate prices, making compliance more expensive for DISCOMs

  • Green Term Ahead Market (GTAM): Launched in 2020, GTAM is a platform for trading physically delivered renewable energy. This market-based approach has the potential to address some of the challenges associated with RECs, promoting transparency and price discovery for renewable energy procurement. However, the success of GTAM hinges on factors like market liquidity and participation from all stakeholders.

Regional Disparities and Grid Integration:

India’s vast geography presents challenges in integrating renewable energy sources spread across different regions. Some states with abundant renewable resources may struggle to utilise them due to limited transmission infrastructure. Conversely, states with high energy demands might lack sufficient renewable resources within their borders.

  • Inter-State Transmission System (ISTS): Strengthening the ISTS network is crucial for seamless power transmission across regions. This will enable states with surplus renewable energy to transmit it to states with high demand, optimising resource utilisation and facilitating balanced regional development.

  • Renewable Energy Rich States (RERS): The concept of RERS can play a significant role in addressing regional disparities. RERS states with abundant renewable resources can be incentivised to generate surplus clean energy and transmit it to deficit states.

Technological Advancements and Cost Considerations:

The declining costs of renewable energy technologies have been a significant factor behind the success of RPOs. However, ensuring continued cost competitiveness is essential for long-term sustainability.

  • Innovation and Domestic Manufacturing: Promoting domestic manufacturing of renewable energy equipment can reduce dependence on imports and create jobs. Additionally, continued research and development efforts can further improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of renewable energy technologies.

  • Balancing Costs and Benefits: While cost is a crucial factor, it’s important to consider the long-term economic and environmental benefits of clean energy. RPO policies should strike a balance between affordability and environmental sustainability.

2. Electricity Act, 2003

Section 86(1) (e) of the Electricity Act, 2003 states that the State Commission shall promote cogeneration and generation of electricity from renewable sources of energy by providing suitable measures for connectivity with the grid and sale of electricity to any person and also specify, for purchase of electricity from such sources, a percentage of the total consumption of electricity in the area of a distribution licensee. Furthermore, Section 61(h) of the Act pertaining to Tariff Regulations states that the appropriate commission shall determine the promotion of cogeneration and generation of electricity from renewable sources of energy. In addition, the Act promotes open access, granting significant consumers the ability to select their power supplier, which might potentially increase the demand for renewable energy providers. Ultimately, the Act facilitates the trade of electricity through specific exchanges, fostering a transparent market setting for transactions using renewable energy. The Electricity Act plays a crucial role in driving India towards a more sustainable energy future by implementing a market-oriented framework and giving priority to clean energy sources.

3. National Green Hydrogen Mission

To promote the use of renewable energy and make India one of the major hubs of the utilisation of Green Hydrogen, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy in 2023 has formulated the National Green Hydrogen Mission; the main objective of the mission is to promote decarbonisation, reduce the country’s dependency on fossil fuel imports and enable Indian to assume technology and market leadership in Green Hydrogen.

This ambitious programme aims to achieve three main goals: decarbonisation through the promotion of clean-burning green hydrogen, lowering reliance on imported fossil fuels, and positioning India as a global leader in green hydrogen technology and markets. The primary objective of the NGHM is to promote the development of domestic green hydrogen production, which involves the creation of a clean fuel from renewable energy sources. Lowering dependence on unpredictable fossil fuel imports will not only alleviate climate change but also strengthen India’s energy security. In addition, the mission aims to position India as a leader in the green hydrogen revolution by providing incentives for research and development and establishing a favourable policy framework. Yet, the achievement of the NGHM relies on progress in green hydrogen technology, strong infrastructural growth, and unwavering policy backing. India can ensure a sustainable and clean energy future by tackling these obstacles and utilising the promise of green hydrogen.

4. PM Surya Ghar Yojana, 2024

To promote the generation of electricity from solar energy, the government of India recently launched the PM Surya Ghar Free Electricity Scheme. Under this scheme, the government plans to provide free electricity to all citizens by installing rooftop solar panels, which will give up to 300 units of free electricity to these houses every month. This programme aims to benefit poor and middle-income households (making less than Rs. 2 lakh per year) by offering financial assistance to install solar panels on their rooftops. The PM Surya Ghar Yojana offers a range of diverse advantages.

First and foremost, the initiative encourages energy self-sufficiency and financial benefits for those who take part. Through the production of their own renewable energy, recipients can greatly diminish their reliance on the conventional power network and potentially eradicate electricity expenses entirely. Furthermore, the Yojana makes a significant contribution towards India’s objectives of achieving sustainable energy. Solar power generation replaces energy production from fossil fuels, resulting in a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions and a more environmentally friendly atmosphere. Furthermore, the programme promotes the growth of indigenous firms involved in producing and installing solar panels. The Yojana is anticipated to generate employment opportunities and foster economic expansion in the renewable energy industry by generating a significant demand for rooftop solar solutions. Nevertheless, PM Surya Ghar Yojana faces certain obstacles. An important issue is guaranteeing effective execution and surmounting administrative obstacles. Efficiently organising the application process and guaranteeing prompt distribution of subsidies are essential for the scheme’s triumph. Moreover, it is crucial to enhance the knowledge and understanding of the target demographic regarding the advantages and requirements in order to optimise their involvement. In addition, it is necessary to consider long-term maintenance and explore viable battery storage alternatives in order to guarantee the program’s sustainability.

Notwithstanding these difficulties, the PM Surya Ghar Yojana has a significant capacity to revolutionise India’s energy scenario. The initiative can make a substantial contribution to India’s energy security and environmental goals by providing citizens with clean and inexpensive energy options.

Renewable Energy and Innovation

The United Nation’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals calls to ensure access to affordable, sustainable, and modern energy for all. Renewable energy technologies and innovations are swiftly changing the worldwide energy scenario, providing a route towards a sustainable future. Renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, and biomass, utilise natural resources to generate clean, sustainable and affordable electricity, in contrast to fossil fuels that emit detrimental greenhouse gases and contribute to climate change.

Studies suggest that solar energy surpasses other forms of renewal energy and the patents filed in this sector has catalysed in the past one decade. Sustainable energy in the future relies on renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass. Nevertheless, in order to fully use their capabilities and tackle the difficulties posed by climate change and energy security, it is imperative to engage in ongoing innovation across multiple domains. The following outlines the ways in which breakthroughs are driving growth in the renewable energy industry:

Technological advancements: Research and development efforts are propelling the development of renewable energy systems that are both more efficient and cost-effective. Advancements in solar panel design, such as the innovation of perovskite solar cells, have greatly decreased expenses and enhanced energy absorption, thereby increasing the accessibility of solar power. Advancements in wind turbine technology are facilitating the creation of bigger and more efficient turbines with taller towers, capable of harnessing stronger and more reliable winds at greater heights. These technological improvements result in higher energy generation and decreased dependence on conventional fossil fuels.

Smart Grid Integration and Storage Solutions: With the rising proportion of renewable energy in the power grid, there is an increasing demand for advanced grid management systems. Intelligent systems have the capability to combine variable renewable sources such as solar and wind with conventional power plants. This ensures that the power grid remains stable and reliable by effectively managing the balance between supply and demand in real time. Optimising the integration of renewable energy relies heavily on advancements in energy storage systems such as pumped hydro storage and battery technology. These methods mitigate the issue of intermittent energy supply from certain renewable sources by storing surplus energy produced at peak times and releasing it when demand is high.

Advancements in material science involve the development of novel materials that possess enhanced properties, which serve as a significant catalyst for innovation. Research on emerging solar cell materials such as perovskites and organic photovoltaics shows potential for enhancing the efficiency of solar energy conversion. This could result in the development of solar panels capable of converting a greater amount of sunshine into electricity. Advancements in materials research are resulting in the creation of wind turbine blades that are lighter, stronger, and more durable, hence enhancing their efficiency and longevity.

Renewable energy innovation extends beyond mere technology advancements. It includes the invention of business models and the implementation of policy reforms. Implementing laws such as feed-in tariffs and tax credits can provide financial incentives for investing in renewable energy. Additionally, establishing collaborations between the public and private sectors can expedite research and development initiatives, leading to quicker introduction of innovative solutions to the market. Moreover, cutting-edge economic models such as peer-to-peer energy trading have the potential to enable communities and individuals to actively engage in the transition towards sustainable energy.

Through the consistent promotion of innovation in multiple areas, renewable energy has the potential to evolve into a dependable, economically competitive, and easily available power source. This will provide the foundation for a future that is more environmentally friendly, reducing the negative effects of climate change and guaranteeing a stable supply of energy for future generations.

Patenting Trends in Renewable Energy

Climate change is an issue of utmost importance and deserves all our attention. While world leaders are trying their best to tackle the issue of climate change by way of reducing carbon footprint, green house emission and finding renewable alternatives which are effective, sustainable and kinder to nature. It has been reported that India has invested a whopping amount of Rs. 16.93 lakh crore in power, renewable energy and Rs. 17.05 lakh crore in pipeline since 2014.

While these investments showcase the country’s commitment in creating a sustainable future, providing patent protection to renewable energy technologies is another way of tracking progress. Over 1,66,74,527 patents have been filed for green technology globally. India alone has seen filing of approx. 3,66,980 patent applications for green technology.

Examples of Indian Companies and Start-Ups Seeking Patents in Renewable Energy Sector

  • Industry leader in fluid management solutions Kirloskar Brothers Limited (KBL), has recently been granted a patent for its PICO pump turbine, this is considered as a ground-breaking hydropower generation system.

  • Imagine Powertree Private Limited is an Indian based Sustainable technology Innovation Company. The company invents, designs, engineers and manufactures solar-powered products. The company has 16 design patents in the name for various innovative designs of solar trees.

  • Indian Energy tech start-up Offgrid has more than 15 patents, designs and trademarks to its name, with a primary focus on renewable energy storage, microgrids, electric vehicle charging and grid applications in utilities.

  • Clean Tech start-up Pi Green Innovations has patented its filter-less technology responsible for the reduction of particulate matter emissions and air pollution.

The renewable energy sector in India has experienced a significant increase in patent applications, reflecting the rapid expansion of installed renewable energy capacity. Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is the most prevalent in terms of patenting activity, with wind energy coming in second. This emphasis on generation technology is in line with India’s lofty objectives for renewable energy. There is a noticeable increase in the practice of obtaining patents for energy storage solutions such as batteries and pumped hydro storage. This suggests that there is a recognition of the need to tackle the issue of intermittent power generation that is linked with some renewable energy sources.

The patenting landscape in India demonstrates a fascinating interplay between domestic and foreign corporations. Although there is a growing number of patent filings from Indian residents, major multinational companies such as Siemens and General Electric still have a substantial portion of renewable energy patents in India. This indicates the necessity for ongoing assistance towards local research and development (R&D) endeavours in order to promote technological innovation and decrease dependence on foreign technologies. Aside from the numerical data, there are apprehensions over the efficacy of India’s patent system in facilitating the expansion of the renewable energy industry. It is believed that the protracted process of applying for patents and the intricacies involved in obtaining them might hinder innovation, especially for smaller local enterprises. Furthermore, there are issues regarding the calibre of patents that have been given, with several individuals doubting if these patents truly signify significant technological improvements or rather minor adjustments.

The global transition towards a low-carbon energy future is driving a dynamic landscape of patenting activity in the field of renewable energy. Examining this trend requires a multi-faceted approach, considering both national and international dimensions.

On the national level, a surge in patenting for established renewable technologies like solar and wind was observed in the early 2000s. This initial phase, often termed the “boom” period, coincided with growing public and private investment in renewable energy, spurred by concerns over climate change and energy security. Countries like China, the United States, and Germany emerged as frontrunners, with their domestic companies filing a significant proportion of patent applications related to solar panels, wind turbines, and related infrastructure.

However, recent years have witnessed a shift in focus. While patenting for core renewable technologies has plateaued or even declined slightly, a new wave of innovation is evident in “enabling” technologies that are crucial for integrating renewables into the broader energy grid. This includes advancements in energy storage solutions like batteries and pumped hydro, as well as smart grid technologies that facilitate the efficient management of fluctuating renewable energy sources. This trend highlights a crucial aspect of the energy transition – the need to move beyond standalone renewable projects and create a holistic, interconnected system that can handle the variable nature of wind and solar power.

The shift towards enabling technologies in renewable energy patenting signifies a maturing of the field. While advancements in core technologies like solar panels and wind turbines were essential for establishing renewable energy as a viable alternative, the focus has now broadened to address the challenges associated with large-scale grid integration.

One of the key areas of patenting activity within enabling technologies is energy storage. The intermittent nature of wind and solar power generation necessitates efficient storage solutions to ensure a reliable and stable electricity supply. Lithium-ion batteries have emerged as a frontrunner in this domain, with significant patenting activity focused on improving their capacity, lifespan, and charging efficiency. Additionally, research and development efforts are underway for alternative storage solutions such as pumped hydro and compressed air energy storage (CAES). Patents in these areas explore advancements in materials, design, and operational efficiency to create cost-effective and scalable storage solutions.

Another crucial aspect of enabling technologies is the development of smart grids. These intelligent networks integrate information and communication technologies (ICT) with traditional grid infrastructure to optimize energy distribution and management. Patenting activity in smart grids encompasses advancements in areas like demand-side management, distributed generation integration, and real-time monitoring systems. These innovations aim to create a more flexible and responsive grid that can accommodate the variable power output of renewable energy sources while ensuring system stability and efficiency.

The international landscape for renewable energy patents presents a fascinating interplay of competition and collaboration. Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications, which streamline the process of filing for patent protection in multiple countries, offer valuable insights into this dynamic. Solar power has consistently led the way in terms of PCT applications, reflecting its rapid cost reduction and global deployment. Interestingly, while established players like the United States, Europe, and Japan remain prominent in patenting activity, Asian countries, particularly China and South Korea, have shown remarkable growth.

China’s emergence as a powerhouse in renewable energy patenting is particularly noteworthy. Driven by ambitious national targets for renewable energy deployment and significant government funding for R&D, Chinese companies have filed a growing number of patent applications across the entire spectrum of renewable technologies. This includes advancements in solar cell manufacturing, wind turbine design, and energy storage solutions. China’s rise in renewable energy patenting signifies its commitment to becoming a global leader in clean energy technologies, potentially disrupting established markets and driving down costs through increased competition.

South Korea presents another interesting case study. While its overall patenting activity in renewables remains lower than China’s, South Korea has shown a strong focus on specific areas like fuel cell technology and next-generation solar cells. This targeted approach reflects South Korea’s strategic priorities for clean energy development, aiming to secure a competitive edge in these emerging technologies.

The international landscape is further shaped by collaborative research initiatives and policy frameworks. The Paris Agreement on climate change, for instance, has served as a catalyst for increased government funding and private sector investment in renewable energy R&D. Additionally, international research collaborations on topics like grid integration and energy storage are fostering knowledge exchange and potentially leading to the co-development of new technologies. These collaborative efforts aim to accelerate innovation while ensuring that intellectual property rights (IPRs) are managed effectively to promote widespread adoption of clean energy solutions.

As the energy transition progresses, policymakers, researchers, and industry stakeholders will need to navigate the evolving patent landscape to ensure that intellectual property rights promote, rather than hinder, the development and deployment of clean energy solutions on a global scale. In order to tackle these problems and optimise the influence of the patenting system on India’s clean energy transition, many approaches can be contemplated. By optimising the patent application process, providing specific incentives for domestic research and development, and encouraging collaboration between research institutions and the corporate sector, we can cultivate a stronger and more dynamic innovation ecosystem. In addition, enhancing patent enforcement methods can motivate corporations to engage in authentic technological developments and guarantee a level playing field for all parties involved. India can utilise its patenting system to address these difficulties and promote both innovation and the practical implementation of these developments, thereby driving the country towards a sustainable energy future.

Patent Filing Trends in India (FY 2019- 2024):

Source: Questel Search


The need for a sustainable energy revolution is imminent. The unsustainable habit of combusting fossil fuels has brought our world to the verge of collapse, necessitating a resolute transition towards renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. This transformation is not just necessary for the environment but also a strategic decision to ensure a safe and sustainable future. Renewable energy provides numerous advantages, including a more environmentally friendly atmosphere with decreased greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, improved energy security by reducing dependence on unpredictable fossil fuel imports, and an economic upswing through the creation of jobs in the manufacturing, installation, and maintenance of these innovative technologies.

However, successfully managing this shift in energy demands promoting and utilising intellectual property (IP) trends in an innovative and strategic manner. Patents for innovative renewable energy technology provide motivation for research and development, stimulating competition and the development of more efficient and cost-effective solutions. The collaboration of research institutes, universities, and private firms can expedite innovation by combining knowledge and resources. Open-source methods, which involve the free sharing of intellectual property, can enhance collaborative development, notably aiding poorer nations that can modify current technologies to suit their own requirements.

Although there are still obstacles, such as the intermittent nature of certain renewable sources and the integration of these sources into the grid, significant progress is being made towards achieving a future powered by clean energy. To expedite our shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy, we may prioritise ongoing innovation, encourage collaboration among all parties involved, and strategically leverage intellectual property. By implementing these measures, we can not only guarantee a more environmentally clean and healthy planet but also establish a stable energy supply and create new economic prospects for a sustainable future for future generations.


Shilpi Saurav Sharan is a Managing Associate at S.S. Rana & Co. Abeer Tiwari is a 5th-year B.A. LL.B student at Balaji Law College, Pune.


All the views expressed by the authors are personal.

Editorial Team:

Managing Editor: Naman Anand
Editor in Chief: Abeer Tiwari and Harshita Tyagi
Senior Editor: Naman Anand
Associate Editor: Abeer Tiwari
Junior Editor: Kanishka Bhukya

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